THE UNIVERSAL PERIODIC REVIEW – UPR
The Universal Periodic Review (UPR) started by the UN in 2006, aims at reviewing the situation of human rights in a given country. The first round for all countries ended in 2011; the second cycle started in June 2012 and will review 42 countries every year, meaning that within four and a half years all UN Member States will be reviewed.
The reviews develop in five stages:
- Interactive dialogue with Member States where other governments can ask questions to the country under review and make recommendations (Geneva, UPR session) and
- Adoption of the draft report with all the recommendations made (Geneva, UPR session)
- Formal acceptance of the report with all its recommendations (Geneva, Human Rights Council), and, finally,
- Implementation and monitoring.
NGOs get to contribute at each stage of the process but more specifically on two separate occasions:
- by submitting a report that will be included in the OHCHR report and informs the dialogue
- by making an oral statement when the government which was reviewed previously accepts or rejects recommendations from other governments.