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Artin, 23, arrived in Turkey 14 in 2007 and was going to Toronto. He was one of about 15 transgender women and 75 gay men at a party in Isfahan, Iran in April 2007 that was busted by morals police.
Sex change operations legal in Iran but still perilous


Although Iran is considered to be one of the most dangerous places in the world to be lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT) — the criminalization of same-sex acts puts homosexuals in a tremendously perilous situation and can result in execution — it is legal to change genders in the country.

In 1967, Ayatollah Khomeini issued a fatwa sanctioning sex changes. The fatwa didn’t have significant legal or political reach until after the revolution in 1979. It was re-issued in 1985, declaring sex changes legal for “diagnosed transsexuals. The government is only one variable including social, familial, religious and legal pressure to have sex change operations.

Shervin, a 19-year-old Iranian refugee living in Kayseri, Turkey, recalls his therapist advising him that he had two choices: get a sex change or leave the country. “He had been working in the field for 30 years and he said that he had come to the conclusion that the only option [for me] was to get a sex change — regardless of whether or not it was wanted — or to leave Iran.”

“It’s difficult to document direct involvement or policy on the part of the Iranian government to try to pressure individuals into sex reassignment surgery,” says Faraz Sanei, researcher for the Middle East and North Africa Division at Human Rights Watch. “Assessing the number of coerced surgeries, executions or corporeal punishment for homosexuality in Iran is exceedingly difficult — and controversial. If you take all of that together, you see why there is a strong incentive actually for individuals to 'become legal.' There is a way out.”

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